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Solving Administrative Problems        2


Use   to identify and diagnose common administrative problems.
Common Administrative Problems

Problem

Possible Cause

Possible Solution

The PortMaster is behaving erratically.

Unusual output is displayed in show commands.

Corrupted ComOS.

Erase and reload ComOS (page 2-5).

The PortMaster does not display the login: prompt when booting.

Corrupted ComOS.

Netboot (page 2-7).

The PortMaster reports a checksum error when booting.

Corrupted ComOS.

You have tried to upgrade ComOS without success.

Failing NVRAM.

Erase and reload ComOS (page 2-5). Try three times.

You have tried to upgrade ComOS three times without success.

Corrupted ComOS.

Netboot (page 2-7).

The PortMaster cannot boot.

Corrupted ComOS or configuration.

Boot from PROM (page 2-13).

You cannot remember the administrative password.

 

Override and replace the password (page 2-20).

Dial-in users are having trouble authenticating.

Incorrect user table configuration, misconfigured port, or RADIUS problem.

  See "Diagnosing Authentication Problems" on page 2-21.

To diagnose port configuration problems, use the show S0 command and refer to the PortMaster Configuration Guide.

For RADIUS problems, see the RADIUS Administrator's Guide.

Erasing the NVRAM, ComOS, or the Configuration

The operating system (ComOS) and configuration of the PortMaster are stored in nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). The NVRAM (also referred to as Flash or Flash RAM) is divided into four partitions (also called "cells") that contain files. Partitions 0 (zero), 1, and 3 hold the ComOS, and partition 2 holds the configuration. This design allows you to upgrade ComOS without disturbing the configuration and to make changes to the configuration of the PortMaster without disturbing ComOS.

You can back up the configuration file if you are confident that it is not corrupted. Occasionally, downgrading ComOS to an earlier version can corrupt the configuration. If you downgrade ComOS, you must back up your configuration first. See Step 5 on page 2-16 for information on backing up the configuration.

Warning ¯ Be extremely careful when erasing NVRAM. You can quickly remove all configuration information and the operating system from the PortMaster, making it difficult to restore and possibly inoperable. Read the entire erasure procedure before beginning to ensure that you understand the effects of the erase commands.

If you erase the cells holding ComOS and reboot your PortMaster, you must netboot to restore the operating system and get your PortMaster functioning again.

If you reformat the NVRAM cell where the configuration is stored and reboot your PortMaster, your PortMaster is reset to factory defaults. You must connect a console to the S0 or C0 port for initial configuration after rebooting.

Although ComOS might still be running in dynamic RAM (DRAM), after you erase the ComOS cells, most show commands do not display useful output. Instead you will see system messages, which are stubs for the actual messages displayed on the console screen.

For example:

Command> show all
SYSMSG489 SYSMSG1029 SYSMSG71 SYSMSG52
SYSMSG603 SYSMSG210 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120
SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120
SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG120 SYSMSG208 SYSMSG459

Command> show global
SYSMSG1071 SYSMSG1030 SYSMSG1031
SYSMSG1070 SYSMSG1035 SYSMSG1072
SYSMSG1068 SYSMSG1037 Maximum PMconsole: 1
SYSMSG1038
SYSMSG1039 SYSMSG1270 PPP Authentication: PAP: on CHAP: on
Disabled Modules: SNMP OSPF BGP

Reasons for Erasing and/or Reformatting NVRAM

The following are reasons to erase and/or reformat NVRAM:

By reformatting the partition of NVRAM where the configuration resides you can return the PortMaster to factory defaults. See "Resetting the Configuration to Factory Defaults" on page 2-4.
A corrupted ComOS can cause the PortMaster to behave erratically. If you see unusual output when using any of the show commands, ComOS might be corrupted. See "Erasing and Reloading ComOS" on page 2-5.
A corrupted configuration can prevent the PortMaster from booting up normally or from performing correctly. See "Erasing ComOS and the Configuration" on page 2-6.
The pminstall utility and PMconsole automatically reformat ComOS and system message partitions before upgrading ComOS.

Resetting the Configuration to Factory Defaults

ComOS and all configuration settings on the PortMaster are stored in NVRAM. You can return the PortMaster to factory defaults by using the following commands.

Warning ¯ Be extremely careful when erasing NVRAM. You can quickly remove all configuration information and the operating system from the PortMaster, making it difficult to restore and possibly inoperable. Read the entire erasure procedure before beginning to ensure that you understand the effects of the erase commands.

  1. Set the console and the debug value.

    Command> set console
    Setting CONSOLE to port S0

    Command> set debug 0x72
    Setting debug value to 0x72

  2. Enter the erase configuration command.

    Command> erase configuration
    Erasing FLASH cell 2 - 28F010 ... Succeeded in 82 tries
    Successfully erased FLASH configuration

  3. Reboot the PortMaster.

    Command> reboot

    Note ¯ When you erase the configuration and reboot your PortMaster, it is returned to factory defaults. You must connect a console to the S0 or C0 port to perform initial configuration after rebooting.

Erasing and Reloading ComOS

If ComOS is corrupted, the PortMaster might behave erratically. You can erase ComOS by using the following procedure:

Warning ¯ Be extremely careful when erasing NVRAM. You can quickly remove all configuration information and the operating system from the PortMaster, making it difficult to restore and possibly inoperable. Read the entire erasure procedure before beginning to ensure that you understand the effects of the erase commands.

  1. Set the console and the debug mask.

    Command> set console
    Setting CONSOLE to port S0

    Command> set debug 0x72
    Setting debug value to 0x72

  2. Enter the erase comos command,

    Command> erase comos
    Erasing FLASH cell 0 - 28F010 ... Succeeded in 75 tries
    Erasing FLASH cell 1 - 28F010 ... Succeeded in 78 tries
    Erasing FLASH cell 3 - 28F010 ... Succeeded in 69 tries
    sys_msginit: Missing System Messages
    Successfully erased ComOs

The "sys_msginit: Missing System Messages" message appears when the partition holding the system messages is erased.
  1. Take note of how many tries are required to erase the NVRAM (FLASH) cells.

If you encounter any problems while erasing ComOS, contact Lucent Remote Access Technical Support.
Note ¯ If you reboot your PortMaster after erasing ComOS, you must netboot to restore the operating system and get your PortMaster functioning again. See "Netbooting" on page 2-7 for instructions.

  1. After you have erased ComOS, reload it by running the pminstall utility.
 See "Installing a New ComOS Using pminstall" on page 2-16 for instructions.
If you encounter problems while reloading the ComOS, verify the following:

Erasing ComOS and the Configuration

You can erase all the NVRAM in the PortMaster including the configuration and ComOS by using the following procedure.

Warning ¯ Be extremely careful when erasing NVRAM. You can quickly remove all configuration information and the operating system from the PortMaster, making it difficult to restore and possibly inoperable. Read the entire erasure procedure before beginning to ensure that you understand the effects of the erase commands.

  1. Set the console and the debug value.

    Command> set console
    Setting CONSOLE to port S0

    Command> set debug 0x72
    Setting debug value to 0x72

  2. Enter the erase all-flash command.

    Command> erase all-flash
    Erasing FLASH cell 0 - 28F010 ... Succeeded in 72 tries
    Erasing FLASH cell 1 - 28F010 ... Succeeded in 76 tries
    Erasing FLASH cell 2 - 28F010 ... Succeeded in 76 tries
    Erasing FLASH cell 3 - 28F010 ... Succeeded in 66 tries
    sys_msginit: Missing System Messages
    Successfully erased all FLASH

The "sys_msginit: Missing System Messages" message indicates that the partition holding the system messages has been erased.
  1. Take note of how many tries are required to erase the NVRAM (FLASH) cells.

  2. After you have erased ComOS, reload it by running the pminstall utility.

    Note ¯ If any NVRAM cells are physically corrupted, the PortMaster "locks up" when that cell is erased, and must be rebooted. If you have already erased ComOS when the PortMaster locks up, you must netboot instead of performing a regular reboot to restore the operating system. See the next section, "Netbooting" for instructions. If you have erased the configuration on the PortMaster, you need a console connection to boot from PROM.

Netbooting

Netbooting allows you to boot a PortMaster with a damaged NVRAM by downloading a temporary ComOS, either with a network connection via a TFTP host, or via the serial port.

The NVRAM might be damaged if any of the following occur:

  1. Access the Lucent Remote Access FTP site and download the appropriate GENERIC file.
See the next section, "Accessing the Lucent Remote Access FTP Site."
  1. If you have a network connection and a TFTP host, download a GENERIC ComOS image.
Use the procedure in "Netbooting with a Network Connection" on page 2-11.
  1. If you do not have a network connection or a TFTP host, download a GENERIC ComOS from another host via the serial port.
Use the procedure in "Booting from PROM (Booting without a Network Connection)" on page 2-13.
  1. When the PortMaster has successfully netbooted a temporary ComOS, download a new, permanent ComOS.
Use the procedure in "Installing a New ComOS Using pminstall" on page 2-16.

Accessing the Lucent Remote Access FTP Site

If you are using Microsoft Windows 95 or Windows NT, use an appropriate TFTP software package to access the Lucent Remote Access FTP site and download a GENERIC ComOS.

If you are using a UNIX host to access the Lucent Remote Access FTP site, use the following procedure to download the appropriate files in preparation for netbooting:

  1. Access the Lucent Remote Access FTP site, and download the README.NETBOOT file.
Enter the following commands from your Ethernet TFTP boot host:
% ftp ftp.livingston.com
Name: anonymous
Password: your email address
ftp> binary
ftp> cd pub/livingston/netboot
ftp> get README.NETBOOT
ftp> quit

  1. Read the README.NETBOOT file to determine which netbootable ComOS to download.
Replace GENERIC.OS with one of the filenames in Table 2-2.  
Netbootable ComOS Filenames

PortMaster Model

Filename

Any PM2 model except PM-25

GENERIC.PM2

PM-25

GENERIC.P25

Any OR model except OR-AP

GENERIC.PMO

OR-AP

GENERIC.OR2

Any IRX model

GENERIC.IRX

Any PM3 model

GENERIC.PM3

  1. Access the Lucent Remote Access FTP site again, and download the appropriate ComOS.
Enter the following commands from your Ethernet TFTP boot host, replacing GENERIC.OS with the appropriate filename from Table 2-2:
% ftp ftp.livingston.com
Name: anonymous
Password: your email address
ftp> binary
ftp> cd pub/le/netboot
ftp> get GENERIC.OS
ftp> quit

Note ¯ The GENERIC.OS file must be downloaded in binary format.

  1. Set up TFTP on your boot host.
Enter the following commands, replacing GENERIC.OS with the appropriate filename (see Table 2-2):
% umask 22
% mkdir /tftpboot
% mv GENERIC.OS /tftpboot/GENERIC.OS
% cd /tftpboot
% ln -s . tftpboot

  1. Using a text editor, uncomment the tftp command entry in the /etc/inetd.conf file.
To have the inetd daemon reread the /etc/inetd.conf file, send a SIGHUP to the inetd process.
This step applies to most UNIX systems. However, the procedure for enabling TFTP on your system might vary. Consult your system documentation.
  1. Do one of the following:

Netbooting with a Network Connection

Any host capable of TFTP can be used to boot a PortMaster from the network.

Netbooting with rarpd

If your system supports rarpd, use the following procedure on the TFTP host after you have downloaded the appropriate GENERIC.OS file to the /tftpboot directory.

Note ¯ The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) server must be on the same subnet as the PortMaster.

  1. Enter the Ethernet address of the PortMaster in the /etc/ethers file or the Network Information Service (NIS) map.

  2. Start rarpd by entering the following command:

    % rarpd -a

    Note ¯ The command might vary, depending on your operating system. Refer to your system manual for more information about running rarpd.

  3. Turn the PortMaster off and on.
The temporary GENERIC.OS ComOS is automatically downloaded to the PortMaster from the TFTP host.
  1. Download a new ComOS into NVRAM by using the procedure in Step 6 on page 2 -17.

Netbooting without rarpd

If your system does not support rarpd, use the following procedure on the TFTP host after you have downloaded the appropriate GENERIC.OS file to the /tftpboot directory.

Note ¯ When you enter a command correctly, the PortMaster responds with OK. If you enter a command incorrectly, the PortMaster responds with a question mark (?).

  1. Turn the PortMaster off.

  2. Place the PortMaster in diagnostic boot mode by setting DIP switches 1 and 2 up.

  3. Attach a terminal to the console port of the PortMaster.

  4. Turn the PortMaster on.

  5. When the PortMaster starts to use RARP, press the Esc key.
An angle bracket (>) prompt appears.
You can also type a caret and a left square bracket (^[) to display the prompt.
Commands available from the PROM are shown in Table 2-3 on page 2-13.
  1. Enter the IP address of the PortMaster Ethernet port:

    > address Ipaddress

  2. Set the netmask and gateway, if needed.
You must set the gateway if the TFTP server is not on the local network. The netmask is set to 24 bits by default.
> netmask Netmask
> gateway Ipaddress

  1. Use the following command to load the PortMaster:

    > tftp Ipaddress

Enter the IP address of the TFTP host that has the GENERIC.OS software. The PortMaster makes a TFTP request from that host, and the server responds by sending the netboot image to the PortMaster.
  1. When the PortMaster has successfully netbooted, set DIP switch 2 down.

  2. Download a fully functional ComOS into NVRAM.
Use the procedure in Step 6 on page 2 -17.

Booting from PROM (Booting without a Network Connection)

If you do not have a network connection, or a TFTP host, you must boot the PortMaster from PROM through the serial port using the following procedure.

Note ¯ This procedure works only with PROMs of level F or higher. The PROM version is displayed in the diagnostic messages when the PortMaster is booted with DIP switch 1 up (diagnostic mode). See the hardware installation guide that came with your PortMaster for more information about diagnostic messages.

Beginning with PROM level F, you can boot your PortMaster remotely from any host with TFTP capability in one of the following ways by using the PROM:

Booting from the tftp Daemon

 Table 2-3 explains the commands you use to boot the PortMaster from PROM. The following procedure explains how to use the commands.
PROM Commands

Command

Description

address

Sets the address of the Ethernet interface.

netmask

Sets the netmask of the Ethernet interface. The default is 24-bit (255.255.255.0).

gateway

Sets the default gateway in order to boot from a server on another network.

tftp

Causes the PortMaster to issue the TFTP request to the boot server.

download

Downloads ComOS using the serial port.

continue

Causes the PortMaster to continue attempting to boot using the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP).

  1. Turn the PortMaster off.

  2. Place the PortMaster in diagnostic boot mode by setting DIP switches 1 and 2 up.

  3. Configure the host computer for 9600 baud, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit and no parity. Turn on XON/XOFF software flow control.

  4. Turn the PortMaster on.

  5. When the PortMaster starts to use RARP, press the Esc key.
An angle bracket (>) prompt appears.
You can also type a caret and a left square bracket (^[) to display the prompt.
Commands available from the PROM are shown in Table 2-3 on page 2-13.
  1. Enter the address of the PortMaster Ethernet port:

    > address Ipaddress

  2. Set the netmask and gateway, if needed.
The netmask is set to 24 bits by default.
> netmask Netmask
> gateway Ipaddress

  1. Use the following command to load the PortMaster:

    > tftp Ipaddress

Enter the IP address of the TFTP host that has the GENERIC.OS software. The PortMaster makes a TFTP request from that host, and the server responds by sending the netboot image to the PortMaster.
  1. When the PortMaster has successfully netbooted, set DIP switch 2 down.

  2. Download a fully functional ComOS into NVRAM.
Use the procedure in Step 6 on page 2 -17.

Downloading ComOS through a Serial Port

To install a bootable ComOS on the PortMaster from a host without file transfer capability, do the following:

  1. Turn off the power on the PortMaster.

  2. Set DIP switches 1 and 2 up.

  3. Attach a null modem serial cable to the host and to the serial port on the PortMaster.
On a PC, attach the cable to port COM1 or COM2.
  1. Configure the host computer for 9600 baud, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity. Turn on XON/XOFF software flow control.

  2. If you are using a PC to boot the PortMaster, download the GENERIC.OS image to the hard drive.

a. From the Microsoft Windows Terminal program select Transfers from the menu bar and then Send Text File from the submenu.

b. Turn on the PortMaster.

c. Press Esc and enter download Number, replacing Number with the size in bytes of the GENERIC.OS image.

d. Uncheck the Strip LF option and find the file in the browse box. See Table 2-2 on page 2-9 for the correct filename for your PortMaster model. Press the OK button when ready to download.
The process takes 5-6 minutes and the PortMaster automatically reboots when done.
  1. If you are using a UNIX host to boot the PortMaster, transfer the file as follows:

a. Enter {cu,tip} /dev/ttyxx in one session window, replacing ttyxx with the serial port tty.

b. Turn on the PortMaster.

c. Press Esc and enter download Number, replacing Number with the size in bytes of the GENERIC.OS image.

d. From another session window, enter cat GENERIC.OS > /dev/ttyxx, replacing GENERIC.OS with the correct filename for your PortMaster model (see Table 2-2 on page 2-9).
When the PortMaster receives Number bytes, it runs ComOS.
  1. When the booting process is complete, set DIP switch 2 down.

  2. Load a fully functional ComOS into NVRAM.
Use the procedure in Step 6 on page 2 -17.

Installing a New ComOS Using pminstall

To download a new ComOS to the PortMaster by using the pminstall utility, do the following:

  1. Turn the PortMaster off.

  2. Set DIP switch 1 to up, and DIP switch 2 to down so that the PortMaster does not netboot each time it is turned on.

  3. Turn the PortMaster on.

  4. Log in as !root.

  5. Do one of the following:

To save the configuration to an output file before reformatting NVRAM, enter the following command on your UNIX host:
% /usr/portmaster/pmreadconf Pmname Pmpassword Outputfilename

On a PC, use PMconsole for Windows to save your configuration.
See "Resetting the Configuration to Factory Defaults" on page 2-4 for instructions.
  1. Download the appropriate version of pminstall and the new ComOS via FTP from the Lucent Remote Access FTP site:

    ftp://ftp.livingston.com/pub/le/software/System/Tarfile.tar.Z.

Replace System and Tarfile.tar.Z with the names of the files. You can retrieve the upgrade image at the same time. The following example illustrates how to retrieve the SunOS pminstall and PortMaster 3 upgrade image:
% umask 22
% mkdir /usr/portmaster
% cd /usr/portmaster
% ftp ftp.livingston.com
Name: anonymous
Password: your email address
ftp> binary
ftp> cd /pub/le/software/sun4
ftp> get pm_3.5.3_sun4.tar.Z pm.tar.Z
ftp> cd /pub/le/upgrades
ftp> get pm3_3.7.2c3
ftp> quit
% uncompress pm.tar.Z
% tar xvf pm.tar
% rm pm.tar
% mv pm3_3.7.2c3 data

  1. Install the new ComOS into the NVRAM by using the pminstall utility.

    % pminstall

  2. After the new ComOS is installed, prepare the PortMaster for operation.
See "Preparing the PortMaster for Operation" on page 2-18 for instructions.
  1. If your PortMaster has problems during or after the netboot, troubleshoot them.
See "Troubleshooting Netbooting" on page 2-18 for instructions.

Preparing the PortMaster for Operation

Use the following procedure to prepare the PortMaster for operation after you have downloaded a new ComOS into NVRAM:

  1. Turn off the power on the PortMaster.

  2. Remove the terminal from the console port.

  3. Return the DIP switches to their normal operating positions.

  4. Reboot the PortMaster by turning on the power.

  5. If the PortMaster is running properly, reenter your PortMaster configuration settings if necessary.
For more information, see the PortMaster Configuration Guide.

Troubleshooting Netbooting

   Table 2-4 lists some of the common problems encountered during or after a netboot and recommends possible solutions.  
Common Netboot Errors and Solutions

Problem

Recommended Action

The PortMaster does not reboot after netboot.

Verify the byte count of the image file on the PortMaster against the file on the FTP site. If the file sizes do not match, download the image file again.

If the file sizes match, use a Sun Solaris or Linux host to do a checksum on the file with the sum command. This command verifies that the checksum and block size are the same for both files. If they are not the same, transfer the file again with FTP and do another checksum until you can verify file integrity.

The green LED on the PortMaster is solidly on or off.

If the green LED next to the DIP switches does not flash off once every 5 seconds, contact Lucent Remote Access Technical Support.

Nothing is displayed on the console.

You can see the PortMaster boot diagnostics and the prompt, but you cannot enter commands.

Output on the console is unreadable

The error message "Panic Watchdog Timer" appears.

Have your console ready on S0, and contact Lucent Remote Access Technical Support. This message might indicate a problem with the NVRAM.

The error message "shared memory error" appears.

Have your console ready on S0, and contact Lucent Remote Access Technical Support.

Replacing Forgotten Passwords

Follow these steps if you have forgotten the administrative password:

  1. Place the PortMaster in diagnostic mode by setting DIP switch 1 up.

  2. Log in to the PortMaster at the PortMaster console login: prompt using !root and a password of override.
A case-sensitive, 16-character encrypted challenge appears.
  1. Contact Lucent Remote Access Technical Support for the appropriate 16-character one-time encrypted response.

  2. Log in to the PortMaster as !root, and enter the 16-character encrypted response given by Lucent Remote Access Technical Support as the password.

    Note ¯ Both the challenge and the response are case-sensitive.

  3. Change the administrative password using the set password command.

  4. Enter the save all command to save the new password to NVRAM.

Diagnosing Authentication Problems

If users are having trouble being authenticated by the PortMaster and you are using RADIUS, see the RADIUS Administrator's Guide for troubleshooting information.

If you are not using RADIUS, do either or both of the following to diagnose authentication problems:

See the PortMaster Command Line Reference for more information on this command.


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